Ph.D., Associate Professor of Technology Management Department of the National Aviation University
Рецензент: Овсянкін А.М.,
професор кафедри технологій управління Національного авіаційного університету, кандидат технічних наук, доцент
Competentive Approach in the Training System Formation for the Project Manager during Teaching the Academic Discipline "Intellectual Property"
A number of factors, which form a certain algorithm of educational activity and the process of formation of specialist professional competencies are considered in the article on the analysis of scientific papers. The importance of the development of monitoring tools for the knowledge assessment of a specialist, the achieved level of the professional qualities and competencies of a person is emphasized in it also.
Key words: competence, competentive approach, system of training, education, project manager, intellectual property.
Formulation of the problem. In the educational sector, the problem of competence arose after some mixed responses from the current market of labor to the lack of knowledgeable new entrants in relation to key competencies. Today, the working at companies in a highly competitive environment requires from an employee not only the ability to use the existing technologies and skills, but also to be prepared to changes and adapt to new labor market needs, to act quickly and make decisions, operate and manage information flows, hold responsibility and the most importantly – to be open to new experience and be able to learn more and more throughout the period of work. These factors, and transformation processes in all forms of society development, have undoubtedly affected the education sector. It is a fundamental and generating component of belief of a personality, creating new educational goals and changing the long-standing strategic objectives. Along with the existing paradigm, which is knowledge, abilities, skills (KAS), this process updates the concept of student competence in terms of his/her future professional activity.
The main material. At present, not only the realization of modern technologies, but also the availability of skills in personnel management and innovation projects, the gaining of the understanding with employees and the providing of a successful labor management are the most important trends in human activity.
Here, “training” is considered as a common term that is used with respect to the applied problems of education. It means the acquiring of the social experience for its further application in solving the unique problems of the applied, cognitive or educational form. This term is considered in two meanings: training itself – the formation of the abilities for solving future problems and the availability – the presence of competences, knowleges, abilities and skills required for solving the assigned tasks.
The specific nature of the activity in the field of innovation development management and the complexity of this kind of activity promoted the formation of peculiar conceptual background of the personnel training.
Evidently, the training system of such kind of the specialists should provide the rapid modification of the content of education and the content of training according to the both anticipated and arised changes in the implementation of the innovation activity.
Such kind of the training system provides the correspondence of the educational and training content with the problems of the project-innovation activity. It provides the acquirement of the specialists’ ability to realize the principal actions and to solve the problems concerning the implementation of the project-innovation activity.
The significant factor providing the appropriate quality level of the specialist’s qualification is a concordance with the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). EQF is an integrated qualification system, its parameters being specified both at the internal and intenational level. This system provides the evaluation (determination) of the training results and its interrelations. The latter reflects, in fact, the ability (competence) of a person to confirm the personnel capacity to exhibit in practice the acquired knowleges, abilities and skills. This, in part, involves the evaluation of the educational diploma and certificates for the citizen of the countries passing the evaluation procedure of the national qualification framework with respect to the compatibility criteria with the EQF requirements.
Special attention should be paid to the realization of the professional training on the base of the competence approach. In this course the training envisages the requirements to the knowleges, abilities and skills, which permit a person to perform successfully the principal actions and to solve the problems regarding a certain profession concerning the implementation of the project-innovation activity.
An important feature during the preparation professionals of specific categories is the need to take into account the significant differences during the preparation specialists with basic education, technical, human or economic profile. In the works of modern authors (Tikhomirov, I.V., Shlyakhetna, N.F., Frolova, E.V.) we can see the analysis of perception of information in ensuring the success of educational activity of students. In this context, the urgent task of modern psychology and pedagogy of higher education is detection and use of the regulatory role of various psychological properties to ensure the success of the educational process.
Considering the significant differences in the basic education of students of different profiles we take into account the following features:
- specialists with a basic (not completed higher) education, technical, human or economic profile have the competence characteristics of different degrees;
- ability of the student, as a natural inclination to a particular activity, talent, or individual characteristics that are subjective conditions of successful productive activities;
- the effectiveness of learning activities has a clear dependence on intellectual capacity, which is defined as a person's ability to analytical and synthetic processing of educational material.
Coordinator of the group project activities must take into account not only a substantive knowledge but also individual psychological, social and psychological factors that influence group project activities.
One of the most important conditions for successful educational activity are intellectual potential, which is defined as a person's ability to analytical and synthetic processing of educational material [1–3].
In accordance to the requirements for training in the leading countries graduate – manager must be a knowledgeable expert in various subject areas of advanced analytical training, ability to use scientific methods of analysis, expert and prognostic assessments, high level language training. This defines for future of the graduate mainly a diagnostic activity (for a class of problems) and in some directions – heuristic (on the creative level). To ensure these requirements within the state standards and normative of higher education course of study is impossible without the use of new educational methods.
The necessity of the students training on the academic discipline "intellectual property" of the specialty 8.18010013 “Project Management” is called forth by the following specific requirements of the present time:
- Rates of industrial changes are stepping up, that is why traditional organizational forms, effective in stable environment with invariable functions, do not prove to be correct. The preference is shown for flexible strategies, organizational structures and cultures, which provide rapid reaction to changes.
- Market conditions are getting more exacting, projects – more massive and require higher level of management professionalism. Problems of human relations, which comprise leadership, motivation, team creation, conflict management are gaining importance.
- Managers’ activity is connected with carrying out the projects, which requires special skills, toolkit, organizational culture.
- Project management introduces forms and methods, which allow directing integration processes into education and production effectively.
Due to new quality requirements to specialist training, which correspond to the needs of accelerated scientific and technical, social and economic development of the country, creation of professional environment at the sub-department of a higher educational establishment becomes a significant factor for improvement of the whole specialist training system for different production branches.
Professional environment of a sub-department is founded on the functional and competence-based approach, which reconstructs modern conception of pedagogical activity as a difficult, diverse and multiple-aspect educational system, represented as specific relations, interactions, skills, knowledge and experience. A constituent part of the professional environment is creative and educative one. Creative and educative environment is the environment of personality, where state of a person becomes harmonized, consequences of stress are neutralized, creative abilities get developed, health improving impact is performed for the whole organism, interrelations with social environment are directed into constructive track, contacts with own essence and the inner man are getting easier, possibilities of being involved into the creative improvisation process, with maximum possible self implementation, self development and self creativity, identifications of purposeful creative activity, comprehension and determination of possibilities and life goals are increasing.
In the current educational system, the studying purposes are not only to learn the principles of science and vocational-oriented transfer of knowledge, but also to create conditions for self-determination and self-identity. Only under these conditions, the society will have a real person, and a company will have a qualified employee. Therefore, the teaching objectives include both the transfer of existing objectively and scientifically stipulated facts and the formation of the student's subjective and personal values of the received information, which is consistent with his personal goals and motives of self-study.
Those factors, within the competency approach, determine the forms of educational activity. They are associated with the formation of meaningful knowledge for a student that can be achieved by converting the momentous information into his/her personal opinion, and onward – to his/her activity. This transformation can be realized only if the information will be assimilated by a student as a practical mean for his/her future actions, being a unique resource and a powerful tool for solving subject-technological, socio-cultural and professional issues.
It should be noted that the relevance of the subject context of teaching and integration of the competency approach in the teaching process is caused by the adaptation of the Ukraine's education system to the current requirements of the society, as well as by compliance with the Bologna Process, as it is integrated into the European educational space.
The analysis of publications devoted to the competency approach allows us to conclude that the terms "competence" and "expetise" are not identical and render different aspects of the process. Thus, the competence can be defined as a certain standard – a system of clearly defined indicators of a specialist’s work, his/her rights, responsibilities and duties associated with his/her official job description. Regarding the expertise, it is seen as subjective integrated indicators of a personality, describing his/her ability and commitment to an occupational life. These features are based on the knowledge, experience and socialization acquired in the study process and focused on the self-made and successful utilization in future carrier.
The above mentioned factors indicate on the complexity and multi-structural nature of these polycomponent concepts. Thus, in terms of social relation, social core competencies may be defined as those contribute to the most complete self-actualization and assimilation of a human being to the modern dynamical and transformational environment. The analysis of the social and business relations brings its own criteria for the expertise assessment of a human being based on certain qualification requirements and subjective-behavioral aspects of an employee. The education in this process, being both directly as forming on the part of the society and as transforming by the subject or sector orientation component dimensions, determines its competences based on cognitive, affective and volitional aspects. This takes into account both the potential qualities and capacities of a student and his/her skills to accomplish the tasks and analyze the substantive issues and select approaches to address them, which are acquired in the process of learning.
Thus, from the pedagogical point of view, the competence of a human being is a specially structured and organized set of knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in the process of learning. The acquired competencies allow a person to define, identify and solve problems which are specific to a particular activity, regardless of the context of a particular situation. Thus, the expertise, as a subjective characteristic of a student, is a set of integrated components that describe the quality indicators of a man’s activity during the implementation of a problem task. These indicators have a dynamic nature and an ability to qualitatively vary under the influence of educational technologies changing over time.
The formation of professional competences consists of a number of factors, creating a certain algorithm of educational activities, the implementation of which is associated with the following steps [4, 5]:
1. Identification of key competencies, which is a universal quality and overall personality skills needed for effective work in various professional and social sectors.
2. Identification of the main professional competencies of future professionals, based on the analysis of the experience of representatives from industries and occupations particular with regard to core competencies.
3. Emerging educational goals and learning content based on specified professional competencies.
4. Development of standards specialties, curricula and syllabuses for each of the disciplines conveyed by a student during his/her studies, taking into account the professionally important features of a future professional.
5. Integration of educational technologies in the system of context studies for training a specialist for specific industry.
6. Assessment of a student’s integrated quality score, which includes his/her acquired level of knowledge and skills, as well as a subjective and personal description, creative abilities and preparedness for professional activities. This indicator shows the level of his future, professional competence.
Following the logic of this process, we will determine professional competences of a project manager. Thus, the project manager expertise is based on a number of professional features, which are as follows:
- ability to manage projects of lesser complexity within the existing elements of project management skills;
- responsibility for all aspects of project management;
- use of processes, methods, techniques and tools of project management.
The main functions of the project manager include project planning, project management, project monitoring and control [6, с. 155].
These functions are resulting from the goals of the project operations, and creating the content and structure of actions purposed for project management. Thus, the Japanese project management standard R2M splits project actions into three components:
1. actions aimed at creating a project product.
2. management actions directed at the project implementation, which are based on coordination and harmonization of business processes and controls, in accordance with the goals and objectives of the project.
3. continuous organizational actions consisting of human resources and general management.
All project actions are interconnected with one other in parallel, they have a complex structure and require from the project manager to have a number of qualitative features such as: ability to analyze and make responsible decisions, professional actinogenegis, a large array acquired knowledge and skills, and the most importantly – to understand a role of project processes and their impact on the outcome of a project product. Most of these qualities can be possessed only in the course of a professional career, however the basic foundation for future expertise should be formed during training activities. Therefore, the main tasks of the professional project manager have been reflected as components of education and qualification characteristics and had impact on the content of the education and vocational training program for this specialty.
Thus, the education and qualification characteristics (EQC) establishes qualification requirements for social and business activities of a university graduate with specialization in project management, as well as a qualification level and statutory requirements to properties and qualities of a person who has obtained a certain educational level for appropriate area of occupation. The Standard "Educational and Qualification Description of MBA Degrees for 8.10018013 –"Project Management" defines four business functions of the Project Manager: design, organization, process and control, each of which includes a set of typical tasks and skills.
An important part of the educational process is to how assess the acquired knowledge and how a student has possessed his/her professional skills and competencies. Within the context studies, a system of tests is one of the most effective means of control. The developed and subject interrelated tasks (tests) form a multi-level system of test control and allow quite quickly and accurately assess a degree of a student’s understanding of the place and role of his/her discipline in the system of professional education, and basic components of interaction processes among the acquired knowledge and skills and other disciplines of professional training.
In order for the system of tests to really get in line the specifications set above, a teacher, while developing it, should take into account several factors associated with the integration of those tasks in the training system for specialists of that profession, and with the definition of subject competences of his/her discipline and methods of control.
The training contents and methods of construction of academic discipline "Intellectual property" correspond to the criteria of the context training. It in conjunction with other normative academic disciplines forms a system of professional training of project managers.
This discipline is the theoretical basis of the integration of knowledge and skills on intellectual property. It forms a profile of specialists on project management in the field of creation, use and protection of intellectual products.
Knowledge and skills obtained by students in the study the academic discipline "Intellectual Property" will be used in the future to study the interrelated subjects of professional and practical training, as well as in writing a diploma work.
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2. Verbitsky A.A. The active Learning in Higher Education: contextual approach / A.A. Verbitsky. – Moscow: Higher School, 1991. – 207p.
3 .Ilyin E.P. Motivation and motives / E.P. Ilyin. – St. Peter, 2002. – 512p.
4. Industry standard of higher education in Ukraine. Educational qualification characteristic MA in 8.000003 "Project Management". Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of 20 December 2004 № 953 "On approval of the components industry standards of higher education in the fields of specific categories of training".
5. Industry standard of higher education in Ukraine. Educational and vocational training program for master's degree in 8.000003 "Project Management". Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of 20 December 2004 № 953 "On approval of the components industry standards of higher education in the fields of specific categories of training."
6. S.M. Illyashenko. Marketing and Innovation Management Development: Monograph / S.M. Illyashenko. – Sumy: OTM University Book, 2006. – 728 p.
Казарінов Ю. І. Компетентнісний підхід у формуванні системи підготовки менеджера проекту під час викладання навчальної дисципліни "Інтелектуальна власність"
У статті на основі аналізу наукових праць розглядається фактори, які формують певний алгоритм освітньої діяльності та процесу формування професійних компетенцій фахівця. Важливість розробки інструментів моніторингу для оцінки знань фахівця і досягнутим рівнем професійних якостей та компетентності людини підкреслюється в ній також.
Ключові слова: компетенції, компетентнісний підхід, система підготовки, освіта, менеджер проекту, інтелектуальна власність.
Казаринов Ю. И. Компетентностный подход в формировании системы подготовки менеджера проекта при преподавании учебной дисциплины "Интеллектуальная собственность"
В статье на основе анализа научных трудов рассматривается факторы, которые формируют определенный алгоритм образовательной деятельности и процесса формирования профессиональных компетенций специалиста. Важность разработки инструментов мониторинга для оценки знаний специалиста и достигнутым уровнем профессиональных качеств и компетентности человека подчеркивается в ней также.
Ключевые слова: компетенции, компетентносный подход, система подготовки, образование, менеджер проекта, интеллектуальная собственность.