Tverdokhlib T. S.,
Doctoral Student of the Department of General Pedagogy and Pedagogy of Higher School at H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences;
Skrypnyk N. S.,
Associate Professor of Department of Foreign Languages at Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences
Reviewer: Rohova T. V.,
Professor of the Department of General Pedagogy and Pedagogy of Higher School, H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor
Organization of Pedagogical Practice of Students of Secondary and Elementary Educational Institutions of the Orthodox Church (the end of the nineteenth century – the beginning of the twentieth century)
The article deals with the organization of pedagogical practice in theological Orthodox seminaries, diocesan schools for women, women's schools of the clerical department, church-teacher and second-class parochial schools. Its main forms are revealed mostly on the basis of the analysis of archival materials, documents placed in the spiritual periodical of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The attention was focused on women's schools of the Orthodox Church as educational institutions, which constantly improved the organization of pedagogical practice.
Key words: theological Orthodox seminary, second-class parochial school, women school of the Orthodox Church, exemplary parochial school, pedagogical practice, church-teacher school.
Formulation of the problem. Today, the importance of pedagogical practice for a future specialist is recognized at the state level. In particular, "The Concept of Pedagogical Education Development" (2018) requires the expansion and improvement of the practical training of students of pedagogical educational institutions, emphasizes the dual form of education. It is necessary to implement the development of modern Ukrainian scholars, to take into account foreign and national pedagogical heritage in order to improve the organization of pedagogical practice. In particular, the experience of organizing pedagogical practice in secondary and primary educational institutions of the Orthodox Church at the end of the nineteenth century – the beginning of the twentieth century deserves to be actualized.
Analysis of recent research. The issues of organization of pedagogical practice are indirectly reflected in works on the history of pedagogical education by Sh. Ganelin, O. Gluzman, N. Demianenko, S. Zolotukhina, M. Kushkov, M. Levchenko, M. Eskin, G. Yakovenko, M. Yarmachenko. I. Kyrychok, O. Lavrynenko, O. Lukianchenko and others devoted their retrospective explorations directly to the development of pedagogical practice in different types of secular educational institutions. The analysis of scientific development of the problem suggests that the issue of organizing pedagogical practice in secondary and primary educational institutions of the Orthodox Church at the end of the nineteenth century – at the beginning of the twentieth century has not been sufficiently studied.
The purpose of the paper is to characterize the development of pedagogical practice in the secondary and primary educational institutions of the Orthodox Church in the investigated period, to identify and disclose the forms used.
The main research material. In 1896, the process of forming a system of pedagogical education in the educational institutions of the Orthodox Church had been completed in the Ukrainian dioceses of the Russian Empire. Its completion is associated with the organization of second-class parochial schools. The decision on their creation was taken at the state level as far back as 1895, but funding was allocated from next year. The resolution of the State Economy Department of the State Council "On Appropriation from the State Treasury of 3.279.445 rubles a year for the maintenance of church parochial schools and schools of literacy, as well as for inspection at these schools" was approved on the 5th of June, 1895. According to it, from the 1st of January, 1896, 1,629,000 rubles were allocated annually to the arrangement and maintenance of second-class parochial schools with teacher courses for the preparation of teachers of schools of literacy [1, p. 15]. From 1895, the system of pedagogical education at the educational institutions of the Orthodox Church included the training of teachers for theological seminaries in the theological academies, the training of teachers for theological schools, parish schools, teachers of the subject "God’s Law" for primary and secondary educational institutions in theological seminaries. In addition, pedagogical education in secondary and higher theological schools was aimed at ensuring the readiness of their graduates for the moral and religious upbringing of the flock. Also, this system included training teachers which provided elementary education with children in women's educational institutions of the Orthodox Church, church-teacher schools and second-class parochial schools. Pedagogical practice was organized only in secondary (Orthodox theological seminaries, diocesan schools for women, women's schools of the clerical department) and primary (church-teacher schools, second-class parochial schools) educational institutions of the Orthodox Church.
At the beginning of the period under research, the conditions were created in theological seminaries so that the didactic knowledge of the seminary students was necessarily combined with the pedagogical skills they acquired during the practice. If in the first decade after the introduction of the Statute of the Orthodox theological seminaries the process of organizing daily exemplary elementary schools continued, where students of grades 5 and 6 practiced, at the end of the nineteenth century – at the beginning of the twentieth century these schools had already been established and functioned stably. Students of secondary theological institutions were mainly engaged in pedagogical observations and conducted trial lessons. The latter were paid a lot of attention and they were conducted on arithmetic, Russian language and God’s Law. Before each such lesson, a seminary student had to develop a detailed plan or summary that was examined by a teacher of didactics. After the lesson, the seminary students and their instructor analyzed and determined the mark, which was put down in a separate column of the class register [11, p. 589], [15, arc 95].
Innovation of the stage was the involvement of students of individual seminaries into educational work in exemplary elementary schools. For example, students of the 6th grade of the Kyiv Theological Seminary during the 1916-1917 academic year organized 8 readings with fuzzy pictures for pupils in an exemplary school [16, ark. 14].
In general, comparing theoretical training on didactics and pedagogical practice, the latter was given greater importance. Measures aimed at increasing the role of practice, which the Holy Synod carried out in the second half of the 80s of the nineteenth century – the first half of the 90s of the nineteenth century, yielded. We can understand how important pedagogical practice in seminaries was by analyzing the "Class Register of the 6th Grade of the Kharkiv Theological Seminary for the 1910-1911 academic year". It states that Z. Honcharevskyi and D. Seredin received only "three" during the academic year, but they got "four" for the year. In parentheses, along with annual grade, the teacher made a note explaining that the grade of seminary students was increased taking into account their achievements in practical classes [5, ark. 34–36].
Along with theological seminaries, such secondary schools as diocesan schools for women and women's schools of the clerical department also provided the formation of the pedagogical skills of their students. Traditionally, practice in parochial schools at women secondary educational institutions of the Orthodox Church began with observations. Study of archival materials [4, ark. 7] and primary sources placed on the pages of ecclesiastical periodicals [8, p. 136], [12, p. 102] lets stating about a gradual reduction of the time allowed for conducting observations in the first year of practice. Students of grades 5 and 6 mainly watched for conducting classes by teachers and senior students. They could go to school for the purpose of observation in different ways: the whole class to attend 1-2 lessons or small groups of 2-3 trainees to attend all classes during the school day.
As in the previous stage, such forms of organization of pedagogical practice in grades 5 and 6 as duty at school and assistance to teacher in the classroom were widespread [7, p. 1667]. They were often combined in the secondary women's educational institutions of the Orthodox Church. In particular, this is noted in Mariupol and Kharkiv diocesan schools for women. In the last one, student assistance at the lessons from 1900-1901 academic year was replaced by duty at an elementary school, which also included assisting the teacher in classes. The head of the school made instructions, which were approved by the Board of the school for students on duty. All the duties of the students on duty were written out in detail there.
During the period under research, fewer and fewer students from grades 5 and 6 were involved in conducting rehearsals of lessons. In some diocesan schools this was done by practice teachers (called pepinierkas). In particular, their functions included in conducting rehearsals with those schoolgirls who did not get on well, night duties, substituting educators who fell ill in Volyn diocesan school for women. Practice teachers got the opportunity of free accomodation and food from the school and a fee for a rehearsal from the parents of children [17, p. 931–932].
The reduction of time for conducting pedagogical observations, the gradual removal of rehearsals from the list of forms of of pedagogical practice organization of students of the 5th and 6th grades were caused by the increasing involvement of these students into conducting lessons. The teacher of didactics and pedagogy watched over every trainee to get experience in conducting lessons from all the subjects of one-grade parochial school. There was widespread situation, which was marked in the Second Kyiv Women's Schools of the Clerical Department, when the fifth-graders worked only with one group at the lesson, and the sixth-graders conducted classes simultaneously in several groups [4, ark. 7]. Teaching staff of exemplary schools and schools provided significant assistance in preparing trainees for conducting lessons. As in the second half of the 80s – the first half of the 90s of the nineteenth century, a teacher and teacher of didactics advised school students when making up a plan or notes of a lesson, checked it, gave methodological advice. Basically, they were present at conducting classes. After the lesson, it was analyzed involving a teacher of didactics and pedagogy, classmates of the trainee and sometimes a teacher of elementary school at this school. In some secondary women's educational institutions of the Clerical Department, students of the 5th and 6th grade wrote reports after conducting a lesson.
Conducting lessons in every women school of the Orthodox Church had its own peculiarities, various types of lessons organized by trainees were common. Thus, at the Kharkiv diocesan school for women during the period studied, two types of lessons conducted by students of the 5th and 6th grades can be distinguished: by independence degree of trainees – ordinary (the teacher assisted in conducting) and trial (conducted solely by a future teacher); by value for school students – current and examination lessons. The examination lesson appeared among the forms of organization of pedagogical practice in the 1900-1901 academic year and was conducted by students of the grade 6 at the end of the academic year in the presence of a special commission. He was awarded a separate mark, which was equated to the mark for the final exam. The notes of these lessons were kept at the educational institution and after the trainee graduation. If we take such a criterion as the degree of coverage of children in school, then we can distinguish the lessons that a trainee taught schoolchildren of one department and classes where she worked at once with several departments.
In the second half of the 90s of the nineteenth century – at the beginning of the twentieth century, involving students in conducting pedagogical diaries became innovation for the majority of diocesan schools for women and women's schools of the Clerical Department. Trainees wrote there their observations at the lessons taught at school by the teacher and classmates, the impression of duty, summaries and analyzes of the lessons conducted, characteristics of pupils, thoughts on pedagogical literature read and so on. This diary was an important document, which was kept in some educational institutions for many years after the trainee graduation a [8, p. 137], [13, p. 306].
Pedagogical consultations should be called as innovation of the studied period. This form of organization of pedagogical practice did not become mass and was practiced only in certain years. In the Kharkiv Diocesan School, students had to attend pedagogical consultations in the period from 1900-1901 academic year and till 1907-1908 academic year. Such consultations took place due to the enthusiasm of the head of the school, who conducted them for the sixth-graders.
Educational work with schoolchildren was a new form of organization of pedagogical practice. It was stipulated by "Provision on the Seventh Additional Pedagogical Grade at Diocesan Schools for Women". The document stated that on Sunday and official holidays, if local conditions were favourable, students conducted reading accompanied by "light pictures" for children in exemplary school [9, p. 6]. Although the formation of skills to organize extracurricular educational activities was provided for students of the 7th grade, the sixth-graders were also involved in conducting educational work at the primary educational institution. It should be noted that their educational activity was not limited to the organization of readings with so-called "light" or "fog" pictures. These readings were the most widespread of course, but at the same time students of the 7th and 6th grades arranged conversations, literature and vocal evenings and mornings for children. Also, trainees helped organize excursions for schoolchildren [14, p. 69].
It is clear that the pedagogical practice of the seventh-graders could not be exhausted by conducting educational work in elementary school. "Provision on the Seventh Additional Pedagogical Grade at Diocesan Schools for Women" determined the minimum of forms of its organization. In addition to the arrangement of educational activities, it included pedagogical observations, conducting lessons and duty [9, p. 6]. It is worth emphasizing that according to the normative act students of the 7th one-year pedagogical grade class had to have practice in second-class parochial schools, but only individual schools for women of the Orthodox Church could reorganize their elementary schools. In most of these schools, the seventh-graders also underwent pedagogical practical training in one-class primary educational institutions.
Analysis of primary sources [7, p. 1668], [12, p. 103] and source literature [13, p. 306] made it possible to establish that the list of forms of organization of pedagogical practice of the seventh-graders given in the "Provision" was expanded in many schools. Trainees conducted pedagogical diaries, made psychological and pedagogical characteristics of pupils and prepared written analysis of the lessons conducted. Nonetheless, the main focus was on conducting lessons. Moreover, if in the 5th and 6th grade students of the school conducted them mainly for one department of the school, then in the 7th grade they did it for several departments to a greater extent. Unlike the 5th and 6th grades, where elementary school teachers and / or teachers of didactics and pedagogy attended lessons of trainees, the seventh-graders mainly conducted classes in the presence of a teacher who taught the subject in the school. Mostly, students of the 7th grade were involved in teaching the God’s Law, Church Slavonic and Russian languages, arithmetic, and church singing.
A great importance was given to the practice of the seventh-graders, in some secondary women educational institutions of the Orthodox Church even more than to theoretical classes. Attention was drawn to the fact that theory and practice had to complement each other. Conducting lessons and observation on them was carried out in parallel and in the continuation of theoretical class of the 7th grade students. Often Teachers of the methodology had often the right to replace theoretical lessons with practical ones, and vice versa in case of need. This happened with the condition that the total number of lessons devoted to practice was not less than the number of classes where the theory was studied.
Studying in the 8th pedagogical grade (during the second year of studying in the 7th grade), students of the secondary women's educational institutions of the Orthodox Church were involved in somewhat unusual for them practice. They attended three junior grades of the school classes on subjects that they specially studied and observed techniques and methods of teaching them; they conducted trial lessons of the subjects on which they specialized in the junior grades of the school "under proper guidance". Also, the girls in turn served as assistant teachers in the three junior grades of the school [9, p. 8]. Such a difference in pedagogical practice in the 8th pedagogical grade (during the second year of study in the 7th grade) and the practice stated in the previous years of studying was due to the fact that they already had a certain level of pedagogical education. In addition, trainees prepared here to teach not in parochial schools, but in junior grades of diocesan schools for women and church-teacher schools.
As in the secondary women educational institutions of the Orthodox Church, the formation of pedagogical skills of students of church-teacher schools was due to undergoing of pedagogical practical training. It was intended for students of the second and third grade, which were to undergo practice in exemplary second-class parochial schools. It was established that the trainees "on the one hand, should be present at the exemplary standard lessons of teacher school, on the other hand – to observe the course of classes of teachers of the exemplary school when they were on duty in it, and to give trial lessons under the supervision and guidance of teachers of the teacher school" [6, p. 453–454]. In most church-teacher schools, students were also obliged to keep diaries of pedagogical observations.
Second-class schools also organized the pedagogical practice of students. However, there were no own exemplary one-class primary schools in some of these educational institutions, mainly at the beginning of the period studied. Practice had to be undergone in local parish schools. Enacting in 1902 of the "Provision on Church Schools of the Department of the Orthodox Denomination" contributed to the organization of special educational institutions for pedagogical practical training undergoing at each second-class school [10, p. 289]. The analysis of primary sources [2, ark. 2-2; 3, ark. 40] indicates that exemplary schools were financed from the sums allocated by the Holy Synod and the local eparchial clergy. These funds did not suffice for timely repairs, completion, and rental of premises. There were cases when exemplary schools suffered from overcrowding, because they were located in the premises of a second-class school or in buildings not really suitable for the study of children. As in most of educational institutions of the Orthodox Church of the period under research, the main form of organization of pedagogical practice of students of second-class parish schools was conducting lessons. It is known that practical classes of the students of the Maidan-Trepivsk second-class school were largely confined by conducting classes in exemplary school. This same form of organization of pedagogical practice prevailed in Tomakovka second-class school of Katerinoslav eparchy [3, ark. 97]. It was established that conducting lessons by trainees was combined with their observations on the classes of the teacher at the exemplary school, duty during the school day in all second-class schools of Poltava eparchy. A summary for every trial lesson was prepared beforehand; such a lesson was analyzed after the completion. Each student gave 5-6 trial lessons during the academic year. In Kharkiv eparchy, students of second-class parochial schools were mostly involved in observing the course of classes and independent conducting classes.
Conclusions. Thus, pedagogical practice was an important component of pedagogical training of the students of the Orthodox theological seminaries, women's schools of the Orthodox Church, church-teacher and second-class parish schools. In most of the educational institutions mentioned, more importance was given to practical training than the theoretical one. Unlike the second half of the 80s – the first half of the 90s of the nineteenth century, when pedagogical practice was carried out only on the basis of one-class primary schools, they also practiced in second-class schools and in three junior grades of schools for women in the period under research. The organization of pedagogical practice was constantly improved, especially in women's schools of the Orthodox Church. Its traditional forms (pedagogical observations, conducting lessons, duty in school, assisting the teacher at the lesson, rehearsals of lessons, writing pedagogical characteristics of the pupils) were supplemented by new ones (organization of educational activities, keeping pedagogical diaries, pedagogical consultations of the head of the school, the duties of the assistants of the educators). Prospects for further research are the studying the peculiarities of training for the moral and religious education of pupils of Orthodox theological educational institutions (the end of the nineteenth century – the beginning of the twentieth century).
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Твердохліб Т. С., Скрипник Н. С. Організація педагогічної практики учнів середніх і початкових навчальних закладів православної церкви (кінець ХІХ століття – початок ХХ століття)
У статті розглянуто організацію педагогічної практики в духовних православних семінаріях, єпархіальних жіночих училищах, жіночих училищах духовного відомства, церковно-учительських і другокласних церковно-приходських школах, що функціонували в українських губерніях Російської імперії в кінці ХІХ – на початку ХХ століття. Переважно на основі аналізу архівних матеріалів, документів, розміщених у журналах "Вера и разум", "Екатеринославские епархиальные ведомости", "Полтавские епархиальные ведомости", "Православная Подолия", "Херсонские епархиальные ведомости", розкрито її основні форми. Акцентовано на жіночих училищах православної церкви як закладах освіти, що постійно вдосконалювали організацію педагогічної практики, збагачувалися новими формами її проведення. Окремо схарактеризовано особливості проведення педагогічної практики у 5-му і 6-му класах означених училищ, а також у 7-му і 8-му педагогічних класах таких середніх жіночих навчальних закладів. Звернено увагу на складні умови функціонування зразкових однокласних церковно-приходських шкіл при другокласних школах. Доведено, що в більшості середніх і початкових навчальних закладів православної церкви практична педагогічна підготовка вважалася важливішою за теоретичну.
Ключові слова: духовна православна семінарія, другокласна церковно-приходська школа, жіноче училище православної церкви, зразкова церковно-приходська школа, педагогічна практика, церковно-учительська школа.
Твердохлеб Т. С., Скрыпник Н. С. Организация педагогической практики учащихся средних и начальных учебных заведений православной церкви (конец XIX века – начало ХХ века)
В статье рассмотрена организация педагогической практики в духовных православных семинариях, епархиальных женских училищах, женских училищах духовного ведомства, церковно-учительских и второклассных церковно-приходских школах, которые функционировали в украинских губерниях Росийской империи конца ХІХ – начала ХХ столетий. Преимущественно на основе анализа архивных материалов, документов, размещенных в духовной периодике конца XIX – начала ХХ веков, раскрыты ее основные формы. Акцентировано внимание на женских училищах православной церкви как учебных заведениях, которые постоянно совершенствовали организацию педагогической практики.
Ключевые слова: духовная православная семинария, второклассная церковно-приходская школа, женское училище православной церкви, образцовая церковно-приходская школа, педагогическая практика, церковно-учительская школа.